“Earthquakes are caused by shifting tectonic plates and subterranean pressure and heat that has been trapped in the earth since the planet was formed”(Courtley, 2012). Earthquakes have shifted all of the continents to where they are today. They have carved out rivers and mountains as well.

Preparedness: falling debris is the greatest cause of death and injury during an earthquake. Make sure things like bookshelves are bracketed to the wall. Remove bigger items from shelves and place them on the floor. Put a block or something in front of appliances to stop them from rolling forward. Strap down your water heater and remove pictures or mirrors hanging near beds. Periodically practice drills with your entire family. Mid-level rooms may be a good place to have a safe room. Never take an elevator in the case of an earthquake, always take the stairs.


What to do in an earthquake:

If you are outdoors: go to a clearning, and away from buildings, poles, and overhead power lines, The safest distance form a building is three times to height of the building. Pay close attention to nearby rocks, trees, and boulders.


If you are in a vehicle:


Stop your car as soon as possible. Try and make sure you are away from buildings, highway ramps, and utility poles. Attempt to drive off elevates roads or bridges before stopping. Get low and as far away from the interior roof in case something crashes down onto the car. If you are in a multilevel parking facility or garage, get out and crouch down next to the vehicle.

If you are inside:

Stay inside. If you try to exit after the earthquake has already begun, the risk of injury or death from falling glass or debris is greater. There are two methods when you are inside:

Drop, cover and hold on: Find a piece of sturdy furniture and get under it. Cover your head with your arms and hold on.


Triangle of life: Position yourself next to a sturdy piece of furniture so that if a wall collapses if will create and crawl space. Stay put until the shaking stops. It rarely lasts longer than a minute.



If you were at home or apartment, get up and go outside immediately. The aftershock can bring the structure down.

If you live in a single-family house, make sure gas lines are closed at the main and turn off electrical breaker. Never attempt to reenter a building after an earthquake.

Aftershocks can continue for days after the initial earthquake and frequently do more damage.

  • Avoid entering structures without approval
  • Sleep outdoors; make shelter in a wide-open area.
  • If living in a coastal region, get to high ground in cause of a tidal wave.
  • Avoid bridges, overpasses and evaluated walkways.
  • Watch out for downed power lines.


If you are buried in rubble:

  1. Try to cover your nose and mouth with cloth or part of your shirt.
  2. Call out to let someone know you are there, but don’t waste too much time or energy doing this.
  3. If you can move, look for light and slowly crawl toward it.
  4. If you cant move, don’t waste too much of your energy yelling. Find something you can tap or bang on. You can always tap “SOS”: three short taps, three long taps, and three short taps. 


Courtley, C. (2012). SEAL survival guide: A Navy SEAL’s secrets to surviving any disaster. New York: Gallery Books.


Car Jacking

Car Jacking


“Car Jacking is defined as forcibly stealing a car while it is occupied, increased in popularity proportionately as more and more antitheft devices became included in autos”(Courtley, 2012).

Car thief’s look for several things when looking for whom to target:

  1. Someone who seems preoccupied and distracted (such as on a cell phone)
  2. Individuals who seem weaker than the carjacker or look like they will not flight.
  3. Vehicles with only a single occupant.

Situational Awareness:

  • Carjacking happens when the car is stopped.
  • 95 percent of carjacking happens in urban and suburban areas.
  • They occur more in broad daylight than at night.
  • A gun or knife is used in 75 percent of all carjacking incidents.

Be most alert at:


  1. Gas stations
  2. High-crime areas
  3. Freeway exit and entry ramps
  4. Less-traveled roads
  5. Intersections where you must stop
  6. Isolated areas in parking lots
  7. Residential driveways and gates

drive thru atm (1)

Strategies of the Thief’s:

Bump and Jump: A technique of a carjacker is to hit your car from behind and steal the car when you get out to exchange insurance information. If someone hits you from behind, call police and tell them where you are and what just happened.

Good Samaritan: A car may seemed disabled on the side of the road and when you pull over to help them, they carjack. Again, call the police first in this situation.

The Ruse Method: This is when a car drives by you or flashes its lights trying to tell you something is wrong with your car.

The Trap Technique: They follow you home then wait till you pull into the driveway, then they ambush you while you park or wait for a gate to open.

Surprise Attack: This is when the carjacker opened your car door and yanks you out.


Prevention Techniques:

  • Do not be distracted in high-risk areas. (no cell phone conversations or seat-dancing to your music)
  • Kepp your doors locked and windows up.
  • When stopped, use your rear and side-view mirrors to stay aware of your surroundings.
  • Keep some distance between you and the vehicle in front so you can maneuver easily is necessary.
  • It may also help prevent your car from getting jacked at intersections if you install the maximum legal tint on the front windows.
  • If you are bumped form behind or someone tried to alert you of a problem with your car, pull over only when you reach a safe public place.
  • Think before stopping to assist in an accident. Call 911.
  • If you are parked at a mall of office building and the lot seems abandoned, ask the building security for an escort.
  • If you are driving into a gated community that doesn’t have security, call ahead to have the gate opened.
  • In all cases, keep your cell phone or radio with you and immediately alert someone regarding your situation.


During Carjacking:

In some situations you may just be able to surrender your keys and step aside, if not you should perform a threat assessment. When you apply this threat assessment, you must decide the best course of action: compliance, flight, or fight.

Compliance- if you give up your car to the carjacker you should make sure you:

  1. Listen Carefully to all directions
  2. Make no quick or sudden movements that the attacker could construe as a counterattack
  3. Get you seat belt off. If this becomes violent, you don’t want to be pinned to your seat.
  4. Always keep your hands in plain view. Tell the attacker every move in advance.
  5. Inform the carjacker that the car is installed with a locator device that cannot be deactivated.
  6. Make the attacker aware if children are present. The attacker may be focused only on the driver and not know the children are in the car.

Fleeing- if fleeing seems like the best option, distract the carjacker momentarily and run.


Carjacking as abduction:

If the carjacker is in the car with you forcing you to drive by holding a weapon to you:

  • Draw attention by gradually drifting across the centerline.
  • Tap your brakes to set the brake lights off repeatedly.
  • Leave turn signal on
  • If its night, attempt to turn headlights off.
  • Run a stop sign or travel far below or above the speed limit.
  • If pulled over act as if you are under the influence, so you will have to get out of the vehicle, then you can explain to the officer what is happening.

If the carjacker is driving the car with you as the passenger:

  • Look for an opportunity when the car slows and is away from oncoming traffic to leap from the car.
  • Get sick, as if convulsing or vomit if possible.
  • Pull the emergency brake
  • Reach over and throw the car into reverse, which will stall the vehicle and distract the carjacker.

If put in the trunk of the vehicle:

  • Disconnect the rear brake-light wiring.
  • Use the trunk escape or release key, which is on the interior or the trunk in many new cars and glows in the dark.
  • Attempt to open the trunk
  • Try to sneak into the backseat by forcing the seat back to fold down.


Courtley, C. (2012). SEAL survival guide: A Navy SEAL’s secrets to surviving any disaster. New York: Gallery Books.

Automobile Accidents

Auto Accident

There are 200 million vehicles in the U.S.

The chances of getting into a car accident are estimated to be more than 95 percent.

43,000 Americans are killed on our nations roadways every year and another 100,000 become permanently disabled due to car accidents.

Isn't it easy to avoid the accident?

There are many different things you can do to increase your chances of surviving after a car accident:

Wear your seatbelt: most deaths from auto accidents result from injuries sustained when the body is slammed against the steering wheel or dashboard. The beat keeps your body firmly in the seat.


Air Bags: air bags sense impact and sudden deceleration and inflate at a speed of 200 mph. Air bags have decreased the risk of dying during a front end collision by 30 percent. A child in the passenger seat should have his or her seat as far back as possible


Headrest: A properly adjusted headrest will eliminate whiplash.


Avoid items in the car: Anything loose laying around in the car can become deadly According to Newton’s law, when you stop abruptly, things in the car keep moving.

Vehicle Maintenance: Things on your vehicle should be regularly maintained and serviced. Pay special attention to the conditions of your brakes and tires.

Common Sense: Use common sense while driving. Don’t drive at crazy speeds or on the wrong side of the road and follow the traffic signs. Adjust to environmental conditions-you don’t need to go 60 mph in the pouring rain just because the speed limit allows you too.

Focus: Don’t text or talk on the phone while driving. Do not multitask while driving.


The Accident: Always focus on the road. Look for potential accidents and avoid them. Watch out for other cars around you, look out for pedestrians, and keep two cars lengths behind the vehicle in front of you. If all these efforts fail and the crash happens then you must respond in the best way possible:

  1. Brace your hands on the wheel in the four o’clock and eight o’clock positions to allow air bag to deploy without your hands being in the way. Put your head back against the headrest and relax your body.
  2. Try to slow your vehicle as much as possible. Braking: If you slam the brakes you will loose control. Slamming breaks causes your car to skid.
  3. Use the front of your car. Hitting head-on offers more protection.
  4. Steer smoothly. Don’t jerk the steering wheel. If you start to skid, turn the steering wheel in the direction you are skidding to regain control.
  5. Sometimes you may need to weave out of the way or out of range of an oncoming car.


Tire Blowouts: If you get a flat or blowout, do not slam on the brakes, let off the gas and let your car gradually slow down.


Post accident: If you are conscious, you want to exit the vehicle quickly. Remain calm. If you are stuck in the car and cant get out, stay conscious by telling yourself that you can endure and that help will arrive shortly. Even if its pain, feeling anything is a good sign because you are alive.


Courtley, C. (2012). SEAL survival guide: A Navy SEAL’s secrets to surviving any disaster. New York: Gallery Books.

Airplane Crash Survival Techniques

This blog is going to discuss airplane crashes. Although airplanes are one of the safest ways to travel, sometimes plane crashes do occur. If you follow certain rules during an airplane crash, you can increase your survival chance. A lot of people die after the crash from things like smoke inhalation, fires, fuel combustion, etc.


Preflight Preparation:

Always make sure you are dressed to handle an emergency:

  1. Always wear long pants and long-sleeved shirts or blouses made of less flammable material.
  2. Avoid wearing sandals, open-toed or high heels.
  3. Have a handkerchief or some other cloth you can cover your mouth with in case of a smoke or noxious-fume event.


Where to sit:

  • Book a seat with emergency evacuation in mind.
  • It’s safer to sit towards the back of the airplane.
  • Seats closer to the exit doors are preferable.


Gathering Intelligence:

Search the information about the safety record of the plane you are ticketed to take.

Use Situational awareness on the plane:

Be aware of:

  • The condition of the plane.
  • The condition of the pilots and flight crew.
  • Your fellow passengers: Does anyone seem unusually nervous, uncomfortable, or out of place?
  • Where are your closest escape routes?

Once you get to your seat immediately find your closest exists. Make sure you know how to properly open the doors.

During Take off and landing be prepared to respond quickly to any emergency condition.



  • Keep your seat belt securely fastened (the seat belt should be as low as possible, not across your stomach.
  • Place yourself firmly against whatever is in front of you(seat in front of you)
  • Stop your limbs from flailing about and hitting things during violent motion of the crash.
  • Wrap your head in your arms tightly clasping your hands and fingers together.
  • If you have a pillow or blanket handy, use it as a cushion between you and any nearby object your body may strike.

Two ways to Brace yourself Properly:

The cross-arm brace position:


The bend-and-tuck brace position:

crash position


If you survive impact, you must immediately get out! The best way to escape is by moving to the front part of the plane.

Finding the best exit:

  • The closest exit to you could be blocked. If you see one as dangerous, cross over and make exit for the door on the opposite side.
  • Orderly evacuation will save more lives.
  • Urge everyone around you to remain calm.
  • Do not pause just continue moving.

What to do once your out:

If it’s in water, swim as far away from the plane as you can.

If it’s on land, move swiftly away from the plane.

If rescue is prolonged, improvise ways to signal your location, like using a fire or hanging cloth or clothing from trees or branches.


Surviving a plane crash is not an easy task, most people probably wont survive, but by using these helpful survival techniques your survival chances will increase.

Courtley, C. (2012). SEAL survival guide: A Navy SEAL’s secrets to surviving any disaster. New York: Gallery Books.

Navy Seal Survival Guide Part 3-Improvised Weapons

This next blog is all about improvised weapons. Improvised weapons are using your imagination to create a weapon out of anything available. If you are in a situation where you could get injured or killed, you better find the most effective item. Whatever you have in your environment are the choices you have to create a weapon. If you look around you right now you might see a few things you could use. A car key or a small table could be potential weapons. Here are a few suggestions of possible weapons:



  • Belts-especially with heavy buckles
  • Coats-a defensive tool against sharp objects
  • High heels-they can be used like a hammer.
  • Socks-fill them with coins or a can of soda.



  • Any aerosol canister- sprayed in the eyes will sting.
  • Nail file
  • Straight Razor
  • Foot powder-can also be used in the eyes.


Office Supplies:

  • Laptop-can be used as a shield, or a shot to the throat
  • Stapler-used a striking tool
  • Scissors
  • Ruler
  • Computer power cords, prier cables, Ethernet cables are good for whipping and strangling


On a Plane:

  • Book-to throw or strike the throat
  • Rolled-up magazine
  • Ball-point pen- for stabbing
  • Vodka-to the eyes
  • Blanket-throw over the face of an attacker to disorient and blind.



  • Knifes, forks, spoons, rolling pin, pots, pans, lids
  • Corkscrew
  • Fire extinguisher (we’ve all seen this used as a weapon in movies)



  • Anything from a toolbox
  • Any sports equipment (for a weapon or protection)
  • Lumber
  • Plumbing Supplies
  • Chain Saw


As you can see you can use just about anything as a weapon you might need in an emergency situation. If you are ever in a situation where someone is trying to harm you, you should use anything you can find for self-defense to get out of the situation alive. 

Courtley, C. (2012). SEAL survival guide: A Navy SEAL’s secrets to surviving any disaster. New York: Gallery Books.

Navy Seal Survival Guide Part 3-Firearms

In this blog I am going to discuss firearms. It is very important that you know how to handle a firearm. You should know how to use it proficiently, by taking a course given by an expert. Then you must practice using the firearm and know the unique characteristics of each different type of firearm. You must also know how to safely store it and be willing to use it. 


In 2010 there were six hundred self-inflicted accidental deaths caused by improper use of firearms. It is very important to know your firearm and have practice using it.

The best weapon to use:

For self defense, a pump shot-gun.


Handguns require more skill to use efficiently. There are two different kinds:

            1.Revolver-more reliable

            2. Semiautomatic 

Graphic1      T94KN_01


Revolver                                                     Semiautomatic

There are some basic rules for operation and safety of a firearm:

  1. Always assume the firearm is loaded.
  2. Never point the firearm at something you don’t intend to kill.
  3. Keep the safety on until you are ready to fire.
  4. Keep your finger off the trigger and only move it to the trigger when ready to fire.
  5. Take a gun or hunter-safety course.
  6. Practice as much as you can.


This is just a little information on firearms. Obviously its very important to use firearms safely especially because of the number of deaths they cause. 

Courtley, C. (2012). SEAL survival guide: A Navy SEAL’s secrets to surviving any disaster. New York: Gallery Books.

Navy Seal Survival Guide Part 3-Gear

In this blog I am going to discuss gear. Gear is important, but it is not the most important. The most important is having the knowledge and training for emergency situations. Having the gear though can make the difference between living and dying. There is a collection of gear that you should have within reach at a moments notice called a go bag. A go bag is something you can throw over your shoulder and run with. There are some essentials for each bag:

Compass Softsided-First-Aid-Kit-piece_top-first-aid-kitseye-drops

  1. Copy of passport, drivers license, emergency contact list, and any necessary prescriptions.
  2. Multitool (includes pliers, knife, saw blade, file, screw drivers)
  3. Compass, folding mirror type (used for signaling)
  4. Marker pen or indelible felt-tip pen and small waterproof notebook.
  5. Flashlight, extra batteries, and a headlamp.
  6. Cyalume chemlights (glow sticks), red and green.
  7. Lighter waterproof matches, and magnesium fire starter, and cotton balls for tinder.
  8. Candles
  9. Plastic whistle
  10. Bottled water and protein or energy bars
  11. SteriPEN or water-purification tablets and filter
  12. Lightweight water-resistant windbreaker and sun visor
  13. Emergency/space blanket
  14. First-air kit: compressed gauze dressing, tourniquet material, cloth sling, surgical gloves, alcohol wipes, sunscreen
  15. Trash bag
  16. Hand sanitizer or bleach wipes
  17. Zip ties
  18. Twenty feet or paracord
  19. Tape
  20. Spare socks
  21. Eye flush/eye drops
  22. Cash in small bills
  23. Any medication you are taking or inhaler.

traditional-candles-and-candle-holders Purell-Hand-Sanitizer-300x300 UM13-Plastic-Whistle_2010_800-600x600

These are just the minimal requirements for immediate survival. Some additional items you could add if you have the space or can carry more weight are:

1.Increase your water supply

  1. Add food like meals ready to eat or freeze dried, add-water food.

3.Small sleeping bag and additional ponchos

  1. Sock hat and gloves: wool is warm even when wet.
  2. Hand powered radio
  3. Additional Flashlight
  4. Fishing kit, including the line and hooks
  5. Snare wire
  6. Extra cell phone with additional batteries
  7. Larger fixed-blade knife.
  8. Expanded first-aid kit, to include additional dressings, tape, scissors, bandages, antiseptic.
  9. GPS
  10. Lock-pick kit and set of jigglers for vehicle entry
  11. Bear Spray (extra strength pepper spray)
  12. Folding shovel
  13. Insect head net
  14. Illumination flares/smoke signals
  15. Change of clothes
  16. Firearm

20. A copy of the Navy Seal Survival Guide

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These are all parts of equipment you may need for survival. These are important to have for emergency situations that might occur. A go bag can be the difference between life and death. It’s important to keep a go bag handy like in your car in case an emergency occurs.

Courtley, C. (2012). SEAL survival guide: A Navy SEAL’s secrets to surviving any disaster. New York: Gallery Books.